Friday, May 22, 2020

The Matter Of Law That Ellison s Reaction Essay - 1701 Words

We cannot say as a matter of law that Ellison s reaction was idiosyncratic or hyper-sensitive. We believe that a reasonable woman could have had a similar reaction. After receiving the first bizarre note from Gray, a person she barely knew, Ellison asked a co-worker to tell Gray to leave her alone. Despite her request, Gray sent her a long, passionate, disturbing letter. He told her he had been watching and experiencing her; he made repeated references to sex; he said he would write again. Ellison had no way of knowing what Gray would do next. A reasonable woman could consider Gray s conduct, as alleged by Ellison, sufficiently severe and pervasive to alter a condition of employment and create an abusive working environment (Ellison v. Brady, 1991). In my opinion, the courts should have been in favor for Ellison. She had evidence of him sending her disturbing letters and also reported his stalker like behavior to her supervisor. Employers who fail to fully investigate sexual harassment complaints in the workplace could face detrimental consequences. All employers should have sexual harassment policies in place; however having a policy is not enough. Policies must be reasonably and properly enforced and there also must be effective internal procedures that will allow employees to bypass supervisors if needed. Simply requiring a policy is not adequate, though it must be applied. Treat all grievances seriously and completely investigate, using an unbiased investigator.Show MoreRelatedThe Cause and Effects of Acid Mine Drainage1699 Words   |  7 Pagesthe 1800s when fast growing industrialization and heavy mining that it caught a lot of attention. Acid rock drainage is the term used to describe leachate, seepage, or drainage that has been affected by the natural oxidation of sulfur minerals contained in rock which is exposed to air and water. The major components of ARD formation are reactive sulfide minerals, oxygen, and water. Biological activity and reactions is what is responsible for the production of ARD. These reactions make lowRead More The Cause And Effects Of Acid Mine Drainage Essay1712 Words   |  7 Pagesbut it was not until the 1800s when fast growing industrialization and heavy mining that it caught alot of attention. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Acid rock drainage is the term used to describe leachate, seepage, or drainage that has been affected by the natural oxidation of sulfur minerals contained in rock which is exposed to air and water. The major components of ARD formation are reactive sulfide minerals, oxygen, and water. Biological activity and reactions is what is responsible for theRead MoreDiscrimination Against African American Literature1769 Words   |  8 Pagesstill high, the discrimination and separation between the blacks and whites was still prevalent. Discrimination is portrayed through Jim Crow laws, which affected every African American tremendously, the narrator’s experience at the Battle Royal, and the narrator s transition from the black college to New York and The Brotherhood. In the Invisible Man, Ellison utilizes characterization to represent the division between whites and blacks in America in the 1950s. Ralph Ellison’s background and life experiencesRead MoreA Brief Note On Rape On College Campuses1267 Words   |  6 PagesTiffany Rodriguez Professor Hall-Lee Contemporary Social Problems 8 February 2017 Reaction Paper #1 - Rape on College Campuses In the past year, cases of sexual assault and debate over the definition of consent has been a major topic of discussion in the media. A large amount of these situations are occurring in colleges across the country. Courthouses and the public do not know how to resolve this epidemic or even how to fairly punish those who are guilty of this assault. Even our current presidentRead MoreEvaluation Of Possible Social Affair Responses Essay1584 Words   |  7 Pagesway, it will be especially important for the general method in the overall population so that reasonable consideration can be made. New law or changes in existing law is ensured by an Act of Parliament. Furthermore, these bills must be perceived from the bills of private people that are proposed by backbench MPs. different various sources begin open bills (Ellison, 2008). Government, common management, political gatherings, Civil Servant, organizations, boards, green/white papers, authoritative processRead MoreDiversity, Crime And Prejudice Case Study Report Submission Form2924 Words   |  12 PagesEngland and Wales. It has been recorded by the Gay British Crime Survey (Guasp, Gammon Ellison 2013) that around one in six Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual individuals have experienced a homophobic hate crime in the past three years. Graph 1: LGB People victimised on more than one occasion. Graph 1 shows the amount of individuals who have been victim of a homophobic hate crime incident or crime (Guasp, Gammon Ellison 2013). This particular graph demonstrates that there is very little significant differenceRead MoreAir Pollution in Mexico City3015 Words   |  13 PagesDisadvantages: †¢ Taxis are convenient †¢ Taxi driver as a job Solution 2 Topic sentence: Another possible solution is to pass a law on telecommuting. Give grounds to the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution†¦): Less gas emissions on telecommuting days (research) Describe your solution: Pass a law on telecommuting Advantages: †¢ Can be implemented now, as it does not require any expanded planning, design and construction;Read MoreDomestic Violence And Violence Against Women2254 Words   |  10 Pagesrealization and a serious concern in the mid 1970’s for many Americans. â€Å"This realization is due to the women advocating on behalf of the battered women movement† (Jackson, 2007). The concern for domestic violence victims began to escalate for all women of all races, backgrounds, socioeconomic levels, culture, and ages. The concern for victims led to the Violence Against Women Act. Legislation passed in 1994 as a part of Title IV of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act to address, respond, andRead MoreTeachers and the Law1794 Words   |  8 Pagesmentally. Policy for educators tasked with preserving student safety are outlined in law, and key of these include mandatory reporting of child abuse, supervision for the prevention of injury, and protection from concerns suc h as bullying, particularly involving the internet. Duty of care owed to students by teachers is essentially the responsibility for maintaining their wellbeing. It is a legally enforceable duty in tort law, so it is important that teachers follow it directly. However, negligence canRead More The main paper1847 Words   |  8 Pagesalso many of them disagree with it too. In my opinion the national ID card system would not protect us from terrorism, but it would create a system of internal passports that would significantly diminish the freedom and privacy of law-abiding citizens. Larry Ellison, head of Oracle Corporation, the California based software company, has called for the development a national identification system and offered to donate the technology to make this possible. He proposed ID cards with embedded digitized

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Essay about The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef - 530 Words

The Ecosystem of the Coral Reef Coral reefs are among the most diverse and productive communities on Earth. They are found in the warm, clear, shallow waters of tropical oceans worldwide. Reefs have functions ranging from providing food and shelter to fish and invertebrates, to protecting the shore from erosion. Although many corals resemble plants, they are actually members of the animal phylum Cnidaria. Most corals are colonial, which means that each coral is made up of many individual polyps connected by living tissue (the coenosarc). Each polyp has a cup-like shape with a ring of tentacles around a central opening (pharynx) that functions as both mouth and anus. The tentacles are tipped with stinging cells called†¦show more content†¦The more famous coral forms huge deposits that take on the shape of small, underwater mountains of calcium carbonate. Corals are benthic organisms in the fact that they are stationary for the most part, and do not swim or drift in the ocean. All coral feed on plankton. Soft coral are filter feeders, filtering out plankton as the current passes through the porous structure of the coral. Hard coral have tiny critters located inside a limestone shell that rely on plankton that float by as their food source. Since they are very sensitive, coral require a very specific environment in order to survive. They are found generally in warm, shallow areas of the tropical oceans. Although they are best developed in temperatures from about twenty-three to twenty-five degrees Celsius, coral reefs can be found in temperatures as low as eighteen degrees Celsius. Corals are restricted to seawater with a salinity ranging from thirty to forty parts per thousand. They also require a concentrated amount of calcium carbonate to assist in the process of forming their skeleton. The shape, size and structure of the coral are directly related to their location in the ocean, and depth. Coral located near the surface tend to be flexible in order to flex and sway with the wave action and tidal currents. The water currents and wind can also play an important role in theShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Coral Reef Ecosystem On Coral Reefs Ecosystem Essay1022 Words   |  5 Pagesfinding by Casey et al. (201 6) and Jennings et al. (1995) regarding bottom up processes in coral reef ecosystem. Also show a profound contrast to widely accepted top-down processes in coral reef ecosystem, indicated by weak relationship on prey-predator interaction and strong positive relationship between hard coral cover and fish biomass. Despite there are more studies confirm cascading effect in coral reefs such as indirect effect on mesopredator and herbivore density( (Friedlandler and DeMartiniRead MoreCoral Reefs : The Ecosystem860 Words   |  4 PagesCoral reefs are an essential component to the ecosystems in Hawaii. Coral reefs are comprised of numerous Cnidarian species that grow sympatrically to form structured colonies. Coral reef colonies support a wide range of marine wildlife. The marine animals utilize coral reefs as their habitat, as a source of food, and as a catalyst for community interactions. Coral reef communities that are well established are known to be highly biodiverse. Coral reefs are known as the tropical rainforests of theRead MoreCoral Reefs And Oceanic Ecosystem1022 Words   |  5 PagesCoral reef or oceanic ecosystem First page WHAT IS THE CORAL REEF ECOSYSTEM? Coral reefs are one of the most popular science ecosystems on earth, which are made up of Organisms. Coral reefs are found in tropical oceans closer to the equator, which makes It as one of the most complex ecosystem on earth. Coral reefs can be as big as 280,000 km2 and can have more than a thousand species. Second page There are many animal and plants in the Coral Reef Ecosystem. A coral reef is know for the beautifulRead MoreMarine Ecosystems: Coral Reefs1349 Words   |  6 PagesDeclan de Mamiel (1033575) Coral reefs are the oldest of marine ecosystems, the youngest approximately 10,000 years old, and are often referred to as the rain forests’ of the ocean. Found commonly in tropical waters less than deep, these areas have a high availability of nutrients and access to sunlight required for the process of photosynthesis. Coral reefs are amongst the most complex and bio-diverse ecosystems, spanning approximately 284,300 km2 (Spalding Ravilious et al., 2001) providing aRead MoreCoral Bleaching And Its Impact On Coral Reef Ecosystems1698 Words   |  7 Pagescurrently know about coral bleaching and its impact on coral reef ecosystems. It analyses the scientific evidence linking coral bleaching to climate change and other anthropogenic activities. It also focuses on the importance of ecosystem services provided by coral reefs, and the socio-economic and environmental impacts of coral bleaching. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations and mitigation strategies to slow do wn the rate of coral bleaching, thus allowing coral reefs to adapt and developRead MoreEssay on Aquatic Ecosystems: Coral Reefs1178 Words   |  5 Pagesoceans warm, ecosystems within the ocean warm and change, too. And whether the change is a normal one by Earths standards, or man made, these ecosystems affect our species in a major way. Coral reefs, for example, may seem insignificant to the majority of people who don’t live near the coast of any continent, but provide so much to us that we need to focus more closely on how any change may impact them and, in turn, all of mankind. For over two million years the ocean’s coral reefs have been theRead MoreCoral Reefs : A Major Role Of Marine Ecosystems1582 Words   |  7 PagesCoral reefs play a major role in marine ecosystems throughout the world in a subtle way. They are a for all intents and purposes a rich source of food for many different organisms. They house and protect several different species and they mostly protect our coastlines. However, coral reefs face various concerns because of climate changes, and so it has been seen that coral blanching frequently causes the termination of reefs. In conjunction with environmental change, there are different elementsRead MoreThe Effects Of Increasing Carbon Dioxide On Coral Reefs And The Ecosystem Services1683 Words   |  7 PagesEffects of increasing carbon dioxide on coral reefs and the ecosystem services Coral reefs are not just a bar of coral living beneath the surface of the water, but a diverse ecosystem with many food webs and inter-species relationships. Coral itself has a complex symbiotic relationship between polyp and zooplankton which lives as an endosymbiont in the polyp tissue. Ecosystem services are what the Coral provides to its nearby organisms and the physical environment. Coral’s calcium carbonate shellRead MoreThe Location Of An Ecosystem1281 Words   |  6 Pageslocation of an ecosystem affects its functioning. At a global scale, latitude, distance from the sea and altitude play decisive roles in determining climate and ultimately the nature of particular ecosystems. The Great Barrier Reef is found along the Queensland coastline. It stretches as far north as Papa New Guinea, 8o South Latitude, to just above (north) of Fraser Island, 24o South Latitude, (an approximate 2300 Km stretch). There are four main regions along the Great Barrier Reef. These are TheRe ad MoreImportance Of Coral Reefs1444 Words   |  6 PagesCoral reefs are a very important to our ecosystem and our earth. The ocean contains many different types of coral reefs containing a wide variety of living things. Although, every day, it seems that our coral reefs are becoming endangered. While these coral reefs are important to us, they are in great danger of being nonexistent. First of all, a coral reef is defined as a ridge of rock in the sea formed by the growth and deposit of coral. Coral reefs are a diverse underwater ecosystem held together

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Caffeine C and E Free Essays

What Do I Get From My Morning Coffee Some people are morning people, but I am not one of those people. Every morning it seems as if I am in a fog until that warm cup of coffee touches my lips. Similar to a drug habit, the more a person drinks coffee, the more it seems like that person cant function without it. We will write a custom essay sample on Caffeine C and E or any similar topic only for you Order Now But what are you really getting from your coffee? Along with other factors, coffee can have both positive and negative effects on your health. Coffee improves the bodys tolerance to glucose by increasing metabolism or mproving its tolerance to insulin. People who drink four cups of caffeinated coffee each day had shown to be 56 percent less likely to develop diabetes than were non- drinkers. Diabetes is the most common risk factor of liver cancer, so American adults may have something to celebrate as they sip their morning cup. A study of one hundred twenty-four older adults, ages sixty-five to eighty-eight, with mild cognitive impairment found that caffeine and coffee intake was associated with a reduced risk f developing Dementia and early onset Alzheimer’s. Coffee is known to be problematic for acid reflux and heartburn. Acid reflux and heartburn can be caused by coffee due to the way it relaxes the lower esophageal sphincter (muscle that closes the airway). This small muscle should remain tightly closed to prevent the contents of your stomach from coming back up into the esophagus and burning its lining with hydrochloric acid. Drinking a lot of coffee will promote the release of the stress hormones cortisol and epinephrine. These hemicals increase your bodys heart rate, blood pressure and tension levels – the old fight or flight’ response. All of this depends on how much coffee and caffeine your body can handle at one time. Although your shoe size isn’t a factor that affects coffee, there are a number of other things that do, these include: your age, gender, how long you have drinkin coffee, and what kind of coffee you drink. Some studies show that drinking decaffeinated coffee does not have the same effects of drinking regular coffee. So it might Just be time to switch that morning cup. How to cite Caffeine C and E, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Supporting Childrens Mental Health

When a child is growing up, all those who interact with him/her need to be careful by ensuring that the environment that the child interacts with is safe. This includes removing objects that can injure the child in the classroom and the entire compound. These roles of child safety are mostly left to the teacher because he/she is the one who is with the child most often hence should be accountable incase of anything.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Supporting Children’s Mental Health specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When the child reaches the age for going to school, both the teachers and the parents should make adequate preparations to ensure that the child will have a smooth experience at school. This paper focuses on the things that teachers should take in consideration to make sure that the child with mental problems will prosper in academics like the rest of the learners. Teachers and parents should wo rk together in promoting the wellness of a child because factors such as children’s experiences at home and school greatly influence their mental growth. The child spends most of the time with the teacher while at school, so in this case one expects the two, that is, the child and the teacher to have a strong bondage. The parents should assist the teachers in identifying their child’s strengths and weaknesses because this will assist the teacher in knowing how to deal with every individual child. Koplow (2002) argues that if the parents do not collaborate with the teachers the first few days may be difficult for both the child and the teacher because the teacher is not aware of what to expect and this means that more time will be wasted while the two entities are getting to know each other. Before the child is taken to school the parents or guardians should explain to the child the things that are to be experienced in school life such as waking up early than usual and the assignments that are to be done everyday. The teacher on the other hand should check to ensure that all the facilities required are in their right place. Both the teacher and the child’s parents should compare notes so that they can have a common approach in handling such child. This means that the child should feel at home when at school and vice versa. None of the parties should be harsh to the child as this would diminish the trust in the teacher and parents. The parents should ensure that they provide a peaceful environment back at home because issues like violence and quarrels that take place in the presence of the child are quite traumatizing hence they should not be exposed to the child.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, if parents interfere with the teacher’s efforts they might make the teacher look like a bad person to the child. This means that if t he child is given any form of punishment the parents should appreciate it as the appropriate method of correction rather than criticizing it. Criticism is only acceptable when the approach used in correction is harmful either physically or mentally and if so it should not happen in the presence of the child. Correction should be done with lots of love because anger might cause it to loose its meaning. Sorte, Daeschel and Amador (2002) recommend that while in the classroom the teacher should establish a strong relationship with each individual child. The teacher should exercise patience because it takes time for a child to develop confidence in a stranger. This friendship can be enhanced by being kind to the child by creating sometime for the two that is the child and the teacher to have conversations. The teacher should take time to listen to what the child is pointing out and should use an appropriate approach while correcting the child because wrong approach could be interpreted a s hatred by the child and this may cause the child not to be frank with the teacher. During learning sessions the teacher should be very patient because all children do not have the same understanding, there are those that are fast learners and those that are slow learners but whatever the case all of them should be treated evenly. However, those that have special needs should be handled differently. This includes equipping them with learning aids which will enhance their learning to make sure they excel like the rest. The teacher should encourage good behavior in a child by rewarding the child for outstanding behavior or action. The parents should also create some time for their children because providing for their physical needs is not enough. Children are like adults hence they also need someone to talk to when they feel things are not going in the right direction. This time that is spent between the child and the parents/teachers is important because it provides the teachers and guardians with an opportunity to monitor the progress of the child. When children are out in the playground the teacher should monitor the games they play because they can injure each other. In addition, harmful objects like sharp objects should be out of reach to the children. The children should be taught to play creative games. This means that other facilities should comply with standard safety measures such as having electricity properly insulated without any hanging wires. This is because children like exploring their environment and such things might cause physical body harm and even death. The same safety precautions should be observed by parents at home (Sorte, Daeschel, Amador, 2011).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Supporting Children’s Mental Health specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The teacher should encourage children to develop friendships among themselves because this contributes to their s ocial well being. In essence, this friendship makes the child feel like school is part of family because he/she has a strong sense of belonging. Children become brighter when they mingle with each other in their plays, which is quite important for their mental and physical well being. When they learn to appreciate each other it boosts their self esteem. References Koplow, L. (2002).Creating Schools that Heal: Real-life Solutions. New York: Teachers College Press. Sorte, J., Daeschel, I., Amador, C. (2011).Nutrition, Health, and Safety for Young Children, Promoting Wellness. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. This essay on Supporting Children’s Mental Health was written and submitted by user Evan Patton to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

3 Examples of Dangling Modifiers

3 Examples of Dangling Modifiers 3 Examples of Dangling Modifiers 3 Examples of Dangling Modifiers By Mark Nichol In each of the sentences below, the sentence has been constructed so that the noun or pronoun that a modifying phrase should refer to is missing, which may or may not cause reader confusion but definitely will distract, often because an inanimate object is mistakenly ascribed human agency, sometimes resulting in an unintentionally humorous reading. Discussion after each example explains the problem, and revisions demonstrate solutions. 1. Lifestyle enhancements are crucial if markets slide when approaching retirement. In the absence of the appropriate noun or pronoun identifying who is approaching retirement, the reader ascribes the impending retirement to the nearest noun or pronoun; here, the sentence refers to markets approaching retirement. To rectify this error, introduce the pertinent noun or pronoun before â€Å"approaching retirement†: â€Å"Lifestyle enhancements are crucial if markets slide when you are approaching retirement.† (The sentence can be further revised to â€Å"Lifestyle enhancements are crucial if markets slide as you approach retirement.†) 2. Social exclusion is inevitable when faced with mobility restrictions. Here, social exclusion is said to be faced with mobility restrictions. To revise the sentence so that it conveys the intended message, insert an explicit reference to who is faced with the restrictions: â€Å"Social exclusion is inevitable when one is faced with mobility restrictions.† 3. Youthful misdemeanors can come back to haunt you while job hunting. In this sentence, youthful misdemeanors are treated as actors in a scenario in which they take time out from their search for employment to carry out a function normally assigned to ghosts. But the correct interpretation is that while you are seeking work, mistakes you’ve made in the past may resurface during the vetting process, as expressed in the following revision: â€Å"Youthful misdemeanors can come back to haunt you while you are job hunting.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:12 Greek Words You Should KnowAcronym vs. Initialism45 Idioms About the Number One

Monday, March 2, 2020

5 Cases of Colliding Article Functions

5 Cases of Colliding Article Functions 5 Cases of Colliding Article Functions 5 Cases of Colliding Article Functions By Mark Nichol The title of a composition is self-contained; an article (a, an, or the) appearing as the first word of the title cannot serve that role as well as function as an article preceding the title. Discussions and revisions follow each example of this principle below. 1. The Apprentice guru has seen four of his casinos go bankrupt. This sentence cannot appropriate the first word of the title of the television program to serve as the sentence’s opening article; therefore, the sentence lacks an article. To resolve this issue, use a workaround convention- insert an article for the sentence and elide the title’s article: â€Å"The Apprentice guru has seen four of his casinos go bankrupt.† (Essentially, unitalicize The, but understand why you did so.) Alternatively, relax the sentence by inserting the article, relocating the noun that the program title modifies so that it precedes the title, and inserting of after that: â€Å"The guru of The Apprentice has seen four of his casinos go bankrupt.† 2. The Danish Girl star showed up in court in Los Angeles on Friday with a bruise on her face. Use the same solution here: â€Å"The Danish Girl star showed up in court in Los Angeles on Friday with a bruise on her face.† (Or write â€Å"The star of The Danish Girl showed up in court in Los Angeles on Friday with a bruise on her face.†) 3. Smith is expected to shoot The Untouchables remake. The same problem exists, and the same solutions apply, when the title appears elsewhere in the sentence: â€Å"Smith is expected to shoot the Untouchables remake† (but, in this case, lowercase the in addition to unitalicizing it) or â€Å"Smith is expected to shoot the remake of The Untouchables.† 4. Don’t miss the A Christmas Story marathon. Titles beginning with the article a (or an) should be treated the same way: â€Å"Don’t miss the Christmas Story marathon† or- with further revision necessary in this case- â€Å"Don’t miss the marathon movie event celebrating A Christmas Story.† 5. Berrigan credited Dorothy Day, founder of The Catholic Worker newspaper, with introducing him to the pacifist movement and influencing his thinking about war. An article that begins the title of a periodical publication should never be italicized: â€Å"Berrigan credited Dorothy Day, founder of the Catholic Worker newspaper, with introducing him to the pacifist movement and influencing his thinking about war.† (This is a style convention of necessity, because periodicals are inconsistent about whether they use an article- for example, compare copies of two preeminent American newspapers to note the difference in the official titles of the New York Times and the Los Angeles Times- and it’s a burden to try to keep track of which publications follow which style.) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Possessive of Proper Names Ending in SHow to Play HQ Words: Cheats, Tips and TricksCapitalizing Titles of People and Groups

Saturday, February 15, 2020

High school does not adequately prepare students for college Essay

High school does not adequately prepare students for college - Essay Example Some of those schools lack required resources whereas in some schools, the teachers are not skilled enough to build the concepts of students properly. High school teachers must possess the ability to prepare high school students for successful transition to college level education. In this paper, we will discuss the factors, which make high schools unable to prepare the students for higher education. Why High Schools Are Not Able to Prepare Students? Lack of resources is one of those factors due to which most of the high schools are not able to prepare students for college. High schools, which do not have enough funds, are not able to pay competitive salaries to the well-experienced teachers. Such schools hire fresh graduates or less-experienced teachers who agree to teach students even on low wages. Such teachers do not posses the ability to teach students in an effective way because they do not have enough teaching experience required to teach high school students. In some schools, there are no proper labs and technological equipment due to lack of available funds. Properly equipped labs and classrooms not only assist teachers deliver their lectures to the students but also help the students learn in an interactive environment. â€Å"Teachers are not always successful at engaging their students when introducing lessons through typical lecture format† (Beam).